- definition: (BG 8.3) "activity pertaining to the development of
karmabhih praninam loke sarva cesta pravartakah: Karma is the cause of all activities among the living beings of this world. (Vayu Purana 21.42)
- categories: aprarabdham-phalam-papam kutam-bijam-phalonmukham (Padma Purana, quoted in BG 9.2p.)
- child's: from 14 years (Mahabharata Adi Parva 108, Madhvacarya quoted in SB 11.21.16 p.)
- conditional (by sakti, buddhi, samrddhi, desa, avastha): SB 11.21.11
- devotee's: changed by Krsna - "Krsna-karma": (SB 2.7.42, 3.28.38, 10.87.40, CC Antya 6.193p., Brhad-bhagavatamrta 2.4.85-86) Vedanta-sutra 4.1.15: only anarabdha-karma burned by vidya. According to Baladeva Vidyabhusana's commentary to Vedanta-sutra 3.4.16, at diksa the HK mahamantra burns all karma (BG 4.37 - sarva karmani) but the gross body - being the prarabdha karma - Krsna preserves for preaching. Spiritual body is attained immediately after initiation (740817SB.VRN)
- devotees vs. nondevotees: (SB 8.9.28) "The place, the time, the cause, the purpose, the activity and the ambition were all the same for both the demigods and the demons, but the demigods achieved one result and the demons another. Because the demigods are always under the shelter of the dust of the Lord's lotus feet, they could very easily drink the nectar and get its result. The demons, however, not having sought shelter at the lotus feet of the Lord, were unable to achieve the result they desired."
- disciple's taken by guru: (Skanda Purana 220.127.116.11, quoted in Hari-bhakti-vilasa 1.77)
rajni camatyaja dosah
tatha sisyarjitam papam
guruh prapnoti niscitam
"Just as a king accepts the faults of his minister and a husband the sins of his wife, similarly a spiritual master receives the sins of his disciples."
- Earth, created only on: (Visnu Purana 2.3.2)
karmabhumir iyam svargam apavargam ca gacchatam
- vs. free will (svecchA, svacchanda): Lord is so great that He knows our future decisions and incorporates them into His plan. So when we act sinfully we have to get reactions because we misused our free will - not that He forced us.
- hereditary: Manu 4.173
- in Kali-yuga not for sins in mind: SB 1.18.7
- references: BG 2.51-52, 4.11-24, 6.41-47, 8.3, 14.18; SB 1.13.46, 4.11.20, 4.24.43, 5.5.5, 5.11.6, 6.1.4,45, 10.13.53, 10.14.8... without end
- transfer: according to Garuda Purana 1.115.6 any personal contact involves transfer of karma to some degree. Therefore the rules of social contact are very prominent in the Vedic culture. "Sin (karma) spreads from a man to man slowly by conversation, mutual touch, frequent association, taking food together, sitting together, lying together and traveling together."
- transfer through food:
Srila Prabhupada taught us in India that different types of foodstuff transferred different degrees of karma from the donor to the consumer. This is for food given in charity by someone to a devotee.
The list from least dangerous to most dangerous: water, whole uncut fruit, cut fruit, fried food (in ghee presumably, pakka), boiled grains like rice (katcha).
If you buy food then you don't get the seller's karma, only the karma of whatever the food might contain. You do get the cook's vibration and mentality if it is cooked food.
Non-cooked foods can be accepted from anyone at any time, if they are pure (not animal product and so on.)
If uninitiated devotee were to cook something and offer it properly it could be accepted by initiated devotees if he were to invite them to his house. After all, we used to go to people's houses in India with Srila Prabhupada and accept their offerings. However, this is not the best thing for initiated devotees. The best thing is to only accept foods cooked in the temple by initiated devotees and offered to the Deities. But if one is traveling and preaching and does a program in someone's house then it is natural to accept something from them if they are on the same standard as a regular devotee, namely chanting and following the four regulative principles.
I do remember from India getting extremely sick from eating outside and Prabhupada confirmed that it came from eating and therefore I have warned all my disciples that it is not good to eat outside, even in India, although for preaching we might make exceptions, but still there will be reactions. People like to feed sadhus because the sadhus come to their house and eat their sins. Prabhupada was merciful and didn't mind eating other's sins because he wanted to save them, but other devotees, who are not so powerful, will get sick by such eating.
- "vicarious atonement": (Vedanta-sutra 4.1.17, Manu 6.79) in case of special nirapeksas, their good/bad karma is divided to their friends/enemies and they leave the body immediately after attaining Vidya
- floats in prana in the heart cavity (Katha Up. 1.3.1); prana is one but acts in different ways, movement of prana leads to identification with the body (SB 4.29.71), lower pranas control the senses and are under the control of main prana controlled by the Supersoul (Paramatma) according to desire and karma of the soul. Consciousness is spread all over the body through blood (also moving due to prana). Soul controls the pranas in a sense that he enjoys their movements. Demigods control the pranas in a sense that they define the activities of the senses (Surya is lord of sight because the sun defines what is visible to the eyes.) Real master of the eye is Paramatma.
- model of interaction with gross and subtle bodies and Paramatma:
Schools of Dvaita Vedanta in agreement with Vedas (Rig Veda
1.164.20-22) and Upanishads (Mundaka Upanishad 3.1.1, Shvetashvatara
Upanishad 3.20, 4.6-7) teach that jiva/atma and Paramatma (Supersoul) are situated in the body like two birds on a
tree. Their mutual interaction can be explained by an example of a
Physical body can be compared to hardware, subtle/astral body to software false ego (ahankara) to interface, prana to electricity, soul (jiva/atma) to user and Paramatma to system operator controlling a network of many computers, or bodies (Bhagavad gita 13.3). Functionality of this system in interaction with the material world is defined by the condition of bodies (age, health, abilities, etc.). When one gross body is completely out of use, jiva has to leave it and Paramatma assigns her another one according to her needs, desires and merits (reincarnation).
- compared to a seed planted into the womb of internal energy, with the help of sravanam kirtanam it grows and develops spiritual body and mind
- 5 kosas (sheaths, coverings, parts of subtle body) (Taittiriya Upanisad 2.1-5, BG 13.5p., SB 6.15.12-15p.):
annamaya - mind oriented on food
pranamaya - on bodily effort
manomaya - on mental activities
vijnanamaya - on intellectual discrimination
anandamaya - impersonal spiritual happiness (vimukta-manina)
Causal body (karana-deha) is a subtle body (linga-sarira) purified by mystic yoga (one can reach the edge of Causal ocean/Karana-jala in it). Preliminary anandamaya is perceived by Brahma and after being transcended, real anandamaya (KC) develops in svarupa, or siddha-deha (spiritual body and mind.) Gross body (sthula-sarira) is nourished by annnamaya consciousness (anna - grains) which predominates in Bhur-loka. Living entities in pranamaya, manomaya and vijnanamaya are civilized humans on Bhur-loka, Bhuvar-loka (mainly water and liquid elements; e.g. moon - cooling and nectar producing effects), Svarga-, Mahar-loka (mainly fiery elements). On Jana-, Tapo-loka (airy elements) and Satya-loka (ethereal elements) live great mystics with asta-siddhi who transcended linga-sarira and have karana-deha. In this body does not exist gross and subtle enjoyment but still there is false ego - they are attached to their positions in the universe. Between material and spiritual mind is no connection (not that lustful mind means madhurya rasa svarupa). While material consciousness predominates, spiritual mind sleeps, everything is like a dream (SB 4.29.2b).
- bhakti inherent to jiva though awakened by guru:
CC Madhya 19.151:
brahmanda bhramite kona bhagyavan jiva
guru-krsna-prasade paya bhakti-lata-bija
brahmanda bhramite - wandering in this universe; kona - some; bhagyavan - most fortunate; jiva - living being; guru - of the spiritual master; krsna - of Krsna; prasade - by the mercy; paya - gets; bhakti-lata - of the creeper of devotional service; bija - the seed.
According to their karma, all living entities are wandering throughout the entire universe. Some of them are being elevated to the upper planetary systems, and some are going down into the lower planetary systems. Out of many millions of wandering living entities, one who is very fortunate gets an opportunity to associate with a bona fide spiritual master by the grace of Krsna. By the mercy of both Krsna and the spiritual master, such a person receives the seed of the creeper of devotional service.
CC Madhya 20.117:
krsna bhuli' sei jiva anadi-bahirmukha
ataeva maya tare deya samsara-duhkha
krsna bhuli' - forgetting Krsna; sei jiva - that living entity; anadi - from time immemorial; bahir-mukha - attracted by the external feature; ataeva - therefore; maya - illusory energy; tare - to him; deya - gives; samsara-duhkha - miseries of material existence.
Forgetting Krsna, the living entity has been attracted by the external feature from time immemorial. Therefore the illusory energy (maya) gives him all kinds of misery in his material existence.
CC Madhya 22.107:
nitya-siddha krsna-prema 'sadhya' kabhu naya
sravanadi-suddha-citte karaye udaya
nitya-siddha - eternally established; krsna-prema - love of Krsna; sadhya - to be gained; kabhu - at any time; naya - not; sravana-adi - by hearing, etc.; suddha - purified; citte - in the heart; karaye udaya - awakens.
Pure love for Krsna is eternally established in the hearts of the living entities. It is not something to be gained from another source. When the heart is purified by hearing and chanting, this love naturally awakens.
(CC Antya 3.78-86:) Caitanya M. liberated all living entities and enabled the manifestation of the unmanifested (suksma) living entities (present inhabitants of this universe) who were merged in material elements, inactive, fully unconscious and out of samsara. Interplanetary space is constituted mainly of ether (akasa) and is full of suksma-jivas.
- the process of falldown:
The ego [primarily] pure has been defiled on account of the external passions since the beginningless past, (359) and what has been added from outside is like a [soiled] garment to be washed off. As when a garment is cleansed of its dirt, or when gold is removed from its impurities, they are not destroyed but remain as they are; so is the ego freed from its defilements. (Lankavatara-sutra, Sagathakam 755-756, D.T. Suzuki, London 1932) cf BG 2.21-22BG 7.27p. - "deluded into separation and becomes controlled by illusory energy"
SB 4.29.26 - "when he forgets his supreme master, the Personality of Godhead, he gives himself up unto the modes of material nature"
SB 10.87.38 - "material nature attracts the jiva" who "loses all his spiritual qualities" (apeta bhagaH)
SB 11.2.37 - words IzAd apetasya specify that the jiva left the company of Isa, the Lord (Monier Monier-Williams: apeta - mfn. escaped, departed, gone, having retired from, free from (abl. or in comp.) and thus became overwhelmed by the fear of duality.
SB 11.5.18 - vAsudeva-parAk-mukhAH - those who have turned away from Lord VAsudeva.
On his way to material world the soul is given three chances by
Krsna (in the form of 3 Visnus) to stay in the spiritual world by
taking shelter of any of Them. Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati says in the
purport to Brahma-samhita 5.16 that when the souls emanate from
Mahavisnu they can surrender to Him and live in Vaikuntha: "The
innumerable jivas as spiritual particles emanating from the oversoul
in the form of pencils of rays of effulgence, have no relation with
the mundane world when they come to know themselves to be the eternal
servants of the Supreme Lord. They are then incorporated into the
realm of Vaikuntha. But when they desire to lord it over Maya,
forgetting their real identity. The egotistic principle Sambhu
entering into their entities makes them identify themselves as
separated enjoyers of mundane entities."
According to SB 3.20.16 when they collectively appear in Hiranyagarbha (Garbhodakasayi Visnu) they can surrender to Him and live in Brahma-loka: "From the navel of the Personality of Godhead Garbhodakasayi Visnu sprouted a lotus flower effulgent like a thousand blazing suns. This lotus flower is the reservoir of all conditioned souls, and the first living entity who came out of the lotus flower was the omnipotent Brahma. Purport: It appears from this verse that the conditioned souls who rested within the body of the Personality of Godhead after the dissolution of the last creation came out in the sum total form of the lotus. This is called hiranyagarbha."
According to SB 4.21.36 when the soul appears in human form by the mercy of Paramatma (Ksirodakasayi Visnu) he gets the chance to receive knowledge from guru, to perform devotional service and to return to Godhead. If he does not take advantage of it he falls into sense gratification and samsara: "There is specific mention of the word gurum, which indicates the Supreme Personality as caitya-guru. The Supreme Godhead in His Paramatma feature is present in everyone's heart, and He is always trying to induce the individual soul to surrender unto Him and to engage in devotional service; therefore He is the original spiritual master."
SB 4.29.4 p.: "Originally the living entity is a spiritual being, but when he actually desires to enjoy this material world, he comes down. From this verse we can understand that the living entity first accepts a body that is human in form [SB 9.24.58 p. - Brahma's], but gradually, due to his degraded activities, he falls into lower forms of life - into the animal, plant and aquatic forms. By the gradual process of evolution, the living entity again attains the body of a human being and is given another chance to get out of the process of transmigration. If he again misses his chance in the human form to understand his position, he is again placed in the cycle of birth and death in various types of bodies."
SB 11.16.42: Therefore, control your speaking, subdue the mind, conquer the life air, regulate the senses and through purified intelligence bring your rational faculties under control. In this way you will never again fall onto the path of material existence. (...na bhUyaH kalpase 'dhvane).
The reason _why_ we, the souls, left Lord's blissful association is our small independence. We can choose to stay with the Lord or not. This is our eternal nature of marginal potency (tatastha-sakti). We thought that the kingdom of Maya is worthy to check out. When we leave the spiritual world, we are captured by Maya and when we realize our fault we try to get back. Lord would like us to stay with Him but He doesn't bar us from leaving Him. Out of His mercy, however, He is all the time with us as the Supersoul and helps us in many ways. And when we come back to our original position, He is more happy than us. The odyssey of the fallen soul is illustrated in the Brhad-bhagavatamrta 2 by Sanatana Gosvami and the Biblical parable of the prodigal son (Luke 15:11 onward).
Jiva and his falldown
- four imperfections: (SB 10.13.15p.) karanapatava (imperfect senses), pramada (tendency to be illusioned), bhrama (committing mistakes), vipralipsa (tendency to cheat).
- size of (a human) thumb: (Mahabharata, Satyavati akhyana) Yama forcibly dragged the thumb-like soul from the body of Satyavan (aNguSThamAtram puruSam niScakaRSa balA yamaH - Ta. 10.38.1 (Taittiriya Aranyaka?)) This seems to refer to jiva covered by a subtle body.
- spiritual qualities (8) sought by: (Vedanta-sutra 1.3.18)
"The term dahara does not refer to the jiva, because the dahara is the source of eight spiritual qualities sought after by the jiva (apahata-papa - freedom from sins, vijara - freedom from old age, vimrtyu - freedom from death, visoka - freedom from material distress and happiness, vijighatsa - freedom from hunger, apipata - freedom from material desire, satya-kama - spiritual desire, satya-sankalpa - self-fulfillment)."
- unlimited number: SB 3.6.8, 11.31.13 (asesa), 7.7.38 (asesa dehinam), Paramatma-sandarbha 47.1
- some are always in the material world (it's never empty): "Srila Jiva Gosvami poses the following question: Since devotional service easily awards one liberation, isn't it possible that everyone will be liberated and the world will no longer exist? The great acarya answers that there is no such danger, since it is very difficult for envious, duplicitous, sensuous persons to faithfully serve the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and there is no shortage of such people in the world." (SB 10.60.54 p.)
- those in Krsna-lila are expanded in unlimited material
"To answer your second question, you should know that Arjuna and Kunti Devi are not in Krishna Loka. They are eternally associated with Krishna only in the material world. Just like Krishna is always in the spiritual world, so similarly He is always in the material world and His Pastimes are going on there also. In the material world, Krishna also has eternal associates, such as Arjuna and Kunti Devi. There is a difference between the body and soul of Arjuna and Kunti Devi. But although Arjuna is with Krishna in innumerable different material universes at one time, still there is only one spirit soul who is Arjuna. This spirit soul expands into many different bodies and thus you can understand that there are also incarnations of devotees as well as incarnations of Krishna. This is the power of the spirit soul, that it is unlimited. Such conception cannot be understood while one is still in the conditioned state." (SP letter to Saradia, Los Angeles, 12 December 1968)
Jiva - soul (definition, analysis, comparison of Western and Vedic concept; BG and Vs quotes in commentaries of four Vaisnava sampradayas)
Jiva - Atma page
Soul Re-emerges in the Laboratory (research by Wilder Penfield etc.)
Many Worlds Interpretation (MWI)
- how to distinguish between S. and mind: Supersoul speaks first and silently, the mind as second but loudly. It speaks in harmony with guru/sastra/sadhu.
- speaks only to the pure devotees (SB 4.29.50p.): Astaratha Das: two-way communication with pure devotees, intuition also in case of common people (who don't know its source)
- directs individual soul (fulfills his desires by directing his body) (SB 4.24.64p., 4.29.60p.)
- reminds him how to act according to his advancement (SB 7.14.38)
- "The Supersoul coming out of the body (of the jiva) enters the impersonal brahmajyoti." (BG 15.18p. - quote from Chandogya Upanisad 8.12.3; acaryas interpret "uttama purusa" also as a mukta jiva, e.g. in commentaries to Vs 4.4.1-3)
- size: "Others conceive of the Personality of Godhead residing within the body in the region of the heart and measuring only eight inches, with four hands carrying a lotus, a wheel of a chariot, a conchshell and a club respectively." (SB 2.2.8)
Krsna's supreme ontological position is elaborately defined in Sad-sandarbhas of Sri Jiva Gosvami, esp. Krsna-sandarbha.
- superior to devas:
tad visnoh paramam padam sada pasyanti surayah
diviva caksur atatam visnor yat paramam padam
The wise continuously see the highest abode of Visnu. (Rg Veda 1.22.20)
tamid garbham prathamam
dadhra apo yatra devahsamagachanta
visve ajasya nabhavad hy ekam arpitam
yasmin visvani bhuvanani tasthuh
The waters, they received that germ primeval wherein the gods were gathered all together. It rested set upon the Unborn's navel, that One wherein abide all things existing. (Rigveda 10.82.6)
naiva kRSNAt paro devI naiva kRSNAt paraH pumAn
naiva kRSNAt paro jJAnI na yogI ca tataH paraH
naiva kRSNAt paroH siddhas tat-paro 'pi nahIzvaraH
na tat-paraz ca janako vizveSAM paripAlakaH
There is no other devi (female) or male person superior to Krsna.
There is no other jnani or yogi superior to Him.
There is no other siddha (perfected being) or god superior to Him; there is no other father and protector superior to Him. (Narada Pancaratra 2.3.8-9)
yathA reNur asaMkhyaz ca tathA vizvAni nArada
eteSAm Izvaraz caiko rAdhezaH prakRteH paraH
O Narada! As the dust molecules are infinite, so the universes are infinite. And there is one God and the only God who is the Lord of all these universes, who is the Lord of Radhika, and is beyond prakrti. (Narada Pancaratra 2.3.16)
- by name:
apasyam gopam anipadyamana ma ca para ca pathibhis carantam
sa sadhricih sa visucir vasana avatirvati bhuvanesv antah
I saw a cowherd. He never falls from his position; sometimes he is near, and sometimes far, wandering on various paths. He is a friend, decorated with a variety of clothes. He comes again and again to the material world. (Rg Veda 1.164.31)
The name "Krsna" is also mentioned in Rg Veda 1.116.23, 8.74.3,4, etc. See Visnu as Supreme in Rig Veda.
yasmat param naparam asti kincid
yasman naniyo na jyayo'sti kascit
vrksa iva stabho divi tisthaty ekas
tenedam purnam purusena sarvam
There is no one greater than Him. There is no one smaller or larger than Him. By this person everything becomes complete. He is situated firmly like a tree, surrounded by effulgence. (Svetasvatara Upanisad 3.9)
esa atma 'pahata-papa vijaro vimrtyu visoko
vijaghatso'pipasah satya-kamah satya-sankalpah
That soul is without sin, without old age, without death, without lamentation, without hunger, without thirst, fully truthful and whose wish is always fulfilled. (Chandogya Upanisad 8.1.5)
ayam atma sarvesam bhutanam madhu ayam atma sarvesam
bhutanam adhipatih sarvesam bhutanam raja
This soul is the honey for all living entities. He is the Lord of all living entities, the king of all living entities. (Brhadaranyaka Upanisad 2.5.14-15)
sa yadi sakhiloka kamo bhavati sankalpad evasya sakhayah
samuttisthanti tena sakhilokena sampanno mahiyate
If He desires friendship, by his wish, friends appear and with them He can obtain satisfaction. (Chandogya Upanisad 8.2.5)
na tatra suryo bhati na candra-tarakam
nema vidyuto bhanti kuto'yam agnih
tam eva bhantam anubhati sarvas
tasya bhasa sarvam idam vibhati
Neither sun, moon, stars, lightning, what to speak of fire, can reveal the Supreme. Rather all the luminary objects, in accordance with the Lord, receive their own existence. Everything rests on the existence of the Lord. (Katha Upanisad. 2.2.15)
vedaham etam purusam mahantam
aditya varnam tamasah parastat
tam eva viditvatimrtyum eti
sarvatah pani padam tat sarvato'ksi siro mukham
sarvatah srutimatloke sarvam avrty atitisthati
I know that great person as transcendental to the material world, self illuminating like the sun. The jiva, knowing Him, surpasses death. There is no other path for crossing death. His hands and feet are spread everywhere. His eyes, head, mouth and ears are everywhere. He exists spreading himself in all things. (Svetasvatara Upanisad 3.8.16)
na sandrse tisthati rupam asya
na caksusa pasyati kascanainam
hrda hrdi stham manasa ya enam
evam vidur amrtas te bhavanti
His form is beyond material sense perception. No one can see Him with material eyes. Those who, by meditation, know him who is situated in the heart, attain liberation. (Svetasvatara Upanisad 4.20)
tam isvaranam paramam mahesvaram
tam daivatanam paramam ca daivatam
patim patinam paramam parastad
vidama devam bhuvanesam idyam
You are the Lord of all other controllers such as Brahma and Siva. You are the Lord of all the devatas such as Indra. You are the Lord of all the prajapatis. You are superior to the supreme. We know you as the ultimate object of all prayers and eulogies; the Supreme Personality who is keen on performing wonderful pastimes. (Svetasvatara Upanisad 6.7)
Purana references: Adi (not Brahma Purana), SB, Bhavisya (Uttara parva - aka Bhavisyottara parva), Brahma (ch. 180-212), Brahma-vaivarta, Brhad-dharma (3rd khanda, end), Devi-bhagavata (skandha 5), Mahabhagavata (ch. 49), Kurma 1.24-25, Malla, Narada (Brhan-naradiya), Padma (Patala khanda 2.69-99), Siva (Bhauma samhita - aka Auma/Uma samhita, Vayaviya samhita, part 2), Brhad-vamana, Visnu (ch. 5)
Dharma sastra references: Visnu smriti 98.96
- analogy: Krsna - king, sakti-tattvas - queens, jiva-tattvas - their children, maya - children's teacher/minder (empowered to punish them)
- as asat (Vs 2.1.17,18)
"Objection: Taittiriya Upanisad 2.6.1 states 'In the beginning was asat.' The Supreme Lord is sat. How can asat coexist with sat? Reply: In this context, asat means 'unmanifest' and sat means 'manifest.' Both are attributes of the energy of the Supreme Lord. Because He has no material qualities, the Supreme Lord may be called asat (nothing, void)." "'Sat' and 'asat' indicate whether a thing is perceptible or not, not whether it exists or not." Also see Vs. 2.1.6, 2.4.3, SB 3.5.25, 10.87.29.
nirdosa purna guna grahatma tantre
niscetanatmaka-sarira-gunais ca hinah
sarvatra ca svagata-bheda-vivarjitatma
The Supreme Lord is endowed with all qualities in perfect, without birth, maintenance and destruction common to material bodies. His body is conscious, without material qualities, composed of bliss. His form is without distinctions between of body and possessor of the body, quality and possessor of the quality, without internal difference. (Narada Pancaratra)
- devotional service is eternal (no merging into the Lord) (SB 3.25.34)
naikatmatam me sprhayanti kecin
ye 'nyonyato bhagavatah prasajya
sabhajayante mama paurusani
na - never; eka-atmatam - merging into oneness; me - My; sprhayanti - they desire; kecit - any; mat-pada-seva - the service of My lotus feet; abhiratah - engaged in; mat-ihah - endeavoring to attain Me; ye - those who; anyonyatah - mutually; bhagavatah - pure devotees; prasajya - assembling; sabhajayante - glorify; mama - My; paurusani - glorious activities.
A pure devotee, who is attached to the activities of devotional service and who always engages in the service of My lotus feet, never desires to become one with Me. Such a devotee, who is unflinchingly engaged, always glorifies My pastimes and activities.
Vs 3.3.47: "In his transcendental abode, the Supreme Lord eternally enjoys His devotees' personal service. He declares Himself dependent upon the love of His devotees. There is no question of Him ending their loving service, which He values more than anything else, by merging His devotees' identities into His own."
- eyes (irises) of dark blue color: Gita-govinda 10.5.1, Krsna-karnamrta 26,45; pink albuginea (aruNa IkSaNam, SB 10.51.2)
- "full knowledge of Krsna": to know 5 tattvas, subjects of Vedanta - isvara, jiva, prakrti, kala, karma, and His avirbhava and tirobhava as transcendent
- not known even to Brahma, Siva etc. (SB 4.29.42-44, 6.3.14-15, 8.12.10)
- in Dvaraka (outside of Vrndavan) as Vasudeva expansion (SB 3.1.34p.)
- kings born on Earth from a part of Visnu (Brahmanda Purana 18.104.22.168)
- 'leaving His body' (Mahabharata Mausala Parva... SB 1.14.8p.,
3.4.29p. - His body in this world is from virat-rupa, 5.19.12, TLC 14,
3.4.33 - kridayopatta-dehasya
- body accepted for pastimes in moral world), considered 'false lila' to fool the atheists (CC 2.23.117-118 - illusory stories in Mahabharata etc.; see Krsna-sandarbha).
- life goal:
etavan eva loke 'smin
pumsah svarthah parah smrtah
yat sarvatra tad-iksanam
etavan - this much; eva - certainly; loke asmin - in this material world; pumsah - of the living entity; sva-arthah - the real self-interest; parah - transcendental; smrtah - regarded; ekanta-bhaktih - unalloyed devotional service; govinde - to Govinda; yat - which; sarvatra - everywhere; tat-iksanam - seeing the relationship with Govinda, Krsna.
In this material world, to render service to the lotus feet of Govinda, the cause of all causes, and to see Him everywhere, is the only goal of life. This much alone is the ultimate goal of human life, as explained by all the revealed scriptures. (SB 7.7.55)
- life stages: (according to Visvanatha Cakravarti commentary to SB
appearance on Sravana Krsna Astami (=8th day, July 19/20, 3228 BCE)
3 years and 4 months - in Gokula [then He moved to Catikara - not mentioned by VCT]
3 years and 4 months - in Vrindavan
3 years and 4 months - in Nandagram
at 10 years 7 months (His permanent age) leaves for Mathura (end of commentary)
there He lives upto His 28 years and 4 months
leaves for Dvaraka for the next 96 years and 8 months
speaks Bhagavad-gita at Kuruksetra battle (aged 90) (3138 BCE)
at 125 years ends His pastimes on the Earth (February 18, 3102 BCE)
- lilas - different versions: (Atma-tattva das) "Brahma lives very long time and during his life many Ramayanas take place. In every kalpa there is a little difference in them." Sastras must be understood through acaryas.
- "lotus feet" meaning: SB 1.8.22: pankaja-anghraye - unto You, the soles of whose feet are engraved with lotus flowers (and who are therefore said to possess lotus feet)
- names: "Because the Supreme Lord is the only cause, all names (e.g. the names of demigods) are really only His names." (Vs 1.4.28, Bhallaveya sruti, Skanda P.)
A complete description of Radha and Krishna gives Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti's Rupa cintamani.
- root of everything (SB 5.15.13)
yat-prinanad barhisi deva-tiryan-
priyeta sadyah sa ha visva jivah
pritah svayam pritim agad gayasya
yat-prinanat - because of pleasing the Supreme personality of Godhead; barhisi - in the sacrificial arena; deva-tiryak - the demigods and lower animals; manusya - human society; virut - the plants and trees; trnam - the grass; a-virincat - beginning from Lord Brahma; priyeta - becomes satisfied; sadyah - immediately; sah - that Supreme personality of Godhead; ha - indeed; visva jivah - maintains the living entities all over the universe; pritah - although naturally satisfied; svayam - personally; pritim - satisfaction; agat - he obtained; gayasya - of Maharaja Gaya.
When the Supreme Lord is pleased by a person's actions, automatically all the demigods, human beings, animals, birds, bees, creepers, trees, grass and all other living entities, beginning with Lord Brahma, are pleased. The Supreme Personality of Godhead is the Supersoul of everyone, and He is by nature fully pleased. Nonetheless, He came to the arena of Maharaja Gaya and said, "I am fully pleased."
- worshiped by/superior to Siva and others: SB 3.15.42, 7.10.50, 7.15.77, 8.6.7, 8.8.27, 8.23.6, 9.10.12, 10.14.19, 10.38.8, 10.44.13,42, 10.47.62, 10.58.37, 10.68.37 etc.
- meaning of the name: aradhyati krsnah anaya iti radha - one who devoutly worships is Radha
- sruti references: Radha is mentioned in Sama Veda and Atharva Veda. Sama Veda contains the etymological derivation of the word 'Radha': radha sabdasya vyutpattih samaveda. Nirupita is the word for Radha in Sama Veda. The word Raadhaa is a combination of four root letters: Ra, aa, Dha, aa, each having its own significance.
Ra: rephohi koti janmagham karma bhogam subhasubham (dispels the sins of a million births and liberates one from the consequences of evil deeds)
AA: akara garbha basanca, mrtyunca rogam ucchrudet (emancipates one from the cycle of birth and death and terminates diseases and death)
Dha: dhakara ayusahan ucchrudet (prevents loss of longevity)
AA: akaro bhava bhandhanah ucchrudet (frees one from the earthly bondage)
Chandogya Upanisad (of Sama Veda) 8.13.1 states: 'syamac chavalam prapadye, savalac chyamam prapadye, syamac.' 'By the help of black (syama), we shall be introduced to the service of white (savala); by the help of white (savala), we shall be introduced to the service of black (syama).' Here black indicates Krsna and white indicates the fair-complected Radha.
- smriti and tantra references: SB 10.30.28 - anayaradhitah, "by her the Lord is worshiped"; Brahma-vaivarta, Garuda, Bhavisya, Brahmanda, Brahma-vaivarta, Mahabhagavata (ch. 49), Naradiya (1.88: the origin of all Devis, their list beginning with Laksmi - 1.88.4, Candravali and Lalita - 1.88.8), Padma (Adi/Svarga khanda, ch. 7, Patala khanda 2.69-99), Varaha, Vayu (ch. 104), Harivamsa, Narada Pancaratra, Gita Govinda...)
'Radha' has not been mentioned in Mahabharata or even Harivamsa Purana but there is a mention of her name in Uttara and Patala Khanda of Padma Purana and in Narada Pancaratra. A detailed analysis is in Brahmavaivarta Purana, Part 4 - Sri Krsnajanma Khanda ('the Krsna birth episode'):
yatha radha priya visnos tasyah kundam priyam tatha
sarva-gopisu saivaika visnor atyanta-vallabha
"Just as Srimati Radharani is most dear to Sri Krsna, Her bathing place known as Radha-kunda is also dear to Him. Among all the gopis, Srimati Radharani is supermost and very dear to Lord Krsna." (Padma Purana)
trailokye prthivi dhanya yatra vrndavanam puri
tatrapi gopikah partha tatra radhabhidha mama
"O son of Prtha, in the three worlds the earth planet, where the town of Vrndavana is situated, is most fortunate. There the gopis stay. There My (beloved), who is named Radha, stays." (Adi Purana)
krsnasyardhanga sambhuta nathasya sadrsi sati
goloka vasina sreyam atra krsnajna adhuna
ayoni sambhava devi mula prakrti isvari
"The best of Goloka's residents appeared here by Krsna's command. She (Radha) is born of no mother and She (Radha) who is the fundamental Prakrti (the female energy) is a goddess and emerged from the better half of Krsna's being and molded after His image."
sri krsnasya tejasardhena sa ca murtimati sati
eka murtihi dvidha bhuva bhedo vedanirupita
"Radha embodies half the divine effulgence of Sri Krsna. They are both one body divided into two beings - such is the irrefutable decree of the Veda."
iyam stri sa puman kimva sa va kanta puman ayam
dvirupe tejas tulye rupenanca gunena ca
parakramenaca budhya va, jnanen sampadapi ca
purate gamane naiva kintu sa vayasadhika...
"In Their looks, in Their radiance, in Their attributes, in Their prowess, in Their wisdom, in Their intelligence and in Their riches, They are so identical to each other that it is difficult to tell Radha from Krsna or Krsna from Radha and that She precedes Krsna and is the older of the two."
eka IzaH prathamato dvidhA-rUpo babhUva saH
ekA strI viSNu-mAyA yA pumAn ekaH svayaM vibhuH
That one God first divided Himself into two parts. One part became female called Visnu Maya and the other part remained Himself as a male. (Narada Pancaratra 2.3.24)
strI-jAty-adhiSThAtR-devIM mUla-prakRtim IzvarIm
That lady was the presiding Deity of the female sex, Mula Prakrti, Isvari and His prana. She is born from His left side. (Narada Pancaratra 2.3.27)
rAse saMbhUya taruNIm AdadhAra hareH puraH
tena rAdhA samAkhyAtA purA-vidbhiz ca nArada
O Narada! The sages name her Radha as She appeared before Hari in Rasa mandalam, quite young and full of youth. (Narada Pancaratra 2.3.36)
rA-zabdoc cAraNAd bhakto bhaktiM muktiM ca rAtiM saH
dhA-zabdoz cAraNenaiva dhAvaty eva hareH padam
On pronouncing merely the word "Ra" the devotees get bhakti and mukti. And on pronouncing the word "dha" one gets the region and place of Hari. (Narada Pancaratra 2.3.38)
Ahirbudhnya Samhita explains that in order to create the universe the Supreme God divided himself as sakti and saktiman. Thus the Supreme Being embodied Himself as Purusa (male energy) and Prakrti (female energy).
Skanda Purana corroborates the fact that Radhika is a part of the Supreme Soul:
atmatu radhika tasya taiva ramanat asau
"Radhika is part of thy Supreme Soul (atma) and You dally with her (atma saha ramati iti atmarama). He, therefore, is called Atmarama."
Radha, a part and parcel of the same Supreme Soul, is the 'principle of ecstasy'. She is not anybody else's wife, dallying with Krsna in an extramarital situation. She is His Atma.
Ekanath Das: The Urdhvamnaya-tantra, also known as Urdhvamnaya-maha-tantra, differs from the Urdhvamnaya-samhita. Reference to the Urdhvamnaya-tantra is supposedly made in the Sadhana-dipika, a book by Narayana-bhatta. I could not find these references. The Urdhvamnaya-tantra is said to deal with various mantras unto Srimati Radharani, astaksara-vidhi (esoteric explanations of the Gopala-mantra) and Gopesvari-vidhana (procedure of initiation into Radha-mantra). It is said that parts of the work are scattered here and there. There doesn't seem to be a complete manuscript.
- age: Srimati Radharani is fifteen years old and full of the luster of youth. (Radha-Krsna-ganoddesa-dipika 2.167); kanyAbhir dvy-aSTa-varSAbhiR - "Lord Krsna is surrounded by sixteen-year-old gopis." (Gautamiya Tantra, quoted in Priti sandarbha 285-286)
- appearance: Puranas give different versions about Her birth,
according to different kalpas.
1. She was born in Gokula as a daughter of Vrsabhanu and Kalavati. (Brahmavaivarta Purana 2.49.35-42, Narada Purana 2.81, Raghunatha dasa Gosvami's Vraja-vilasa-stava)
2. When King Vrsabhanu was preparing the ground to conduct a yajna, he found Her in the earth, as Bhumi-kanya ("earth-girl," similarly to Sitadevi who was found in the wooden box buried in the earth, and to black Madonnas). (Padma Purana, Brahma Purana 7)
3. She was born from the left side of Krsna. (Brahmavaivarta Purana)
4. At Krsna's birth Visnu asked His attendants to be born on earth. Radha took Her birth in Gokula under the star Jyestha in the morning of Suklastami day in Bhadrapada month. (Mahabharata Adi Parva 11)
In another kalpa she is found in Yamuna river on a golden lotus by Maharaja Vrsabhanu.
- eternally with the Lord: (Garga samhita 1.16.23-27)
You are the playful king of Goloka and She is Your playful companion. When You are the king of Vaikuntha, She, the daughter of Vrsabhanu, is Goddess Laksmi.
When in this world You are Ramacandra, She is Janaka's daughter Sita. When You are Lord Hari, She is Kamala. When You are Yajna-avatara, She is Sri Daksina, the best of wives.
When You are Nrsimha, She is Rama. When You are Nara's friend Narayana Rsi, She becomes Goddess Santi and follows You like a shadow.
When You are Brahman, She is Prakrti. When You are Time, the wise know She is Pradhana. When You are the Mahat-tattva, from which the universes have sprouted, Radha is the potency Maya, filled with the three modes.
When You become the four things in the heart [heart, mind, intelligence, and false ego], She becomes the power of understanding something from a hint. When You become the universal form, which includes everything, She becomes the earth.
See also SB 10.60.9 and Visnu Purana verse in purport.
- separated from Krsna for 100 years (during His Dvaraka stay) due to Sridama's curse (Brahma-vaivarta Purana):
6.243 O beautiful one, I will go to Mathura and because of Sridama's curse, We will be separated.
6.252 Beloved, during the hundred years We are separated We will meet in Our dreams again and again.
6.253 In My Narayana form I will go to Dvaraka for those hundred years. In that way I will enjoy My pastimes there.
These statements are reconciled in Sanatkumara samhita 302-303:sri-narada uvaca
gate madhu-purim krsne
samsayam cindhi me prabho
Shri Narada said: If when Lord Krishna goes to Mathura He manifests His more-perfect form of Vasudeva's son (which is different from the most-perfect form of Nanda's son), then how is it possible for Shri Radha to feel the pangs of separation from this form (a form different from the Vrindavana-Krishna)? O master, please cut apart this doubt.sri-sadasiva uvaca
saktih samyogini kama
vama saktir viyogini
caivam radha trayam vraje
Lord Sadashiva said: The Samyogini potency arranges the amorous pastimes of the divine couple, and the Viyogini potency arranges that the divine couple be separated. The Hladini potency is the Lord's pleasure potency. In Vraja Shri Radha is the manifestation of these three potencies.
Samyogini is the expansion of Sri Radha outside Vrndavan, when She meets Krsna at Kuruksetra. Viyogini is the expansion of Sri Radha in Gokula (Bhauma) Vrindavan after Krsna moves to Mathura. Hladini (Kirtida-putri, Vrsabhanu-nandini) is Her original form always present with Sri Krsna in Goloka (Divya) Vrndavan in asta-kaliya-lila. See the context verses in Sanatkumara samhita for more information.
- marriage (CC Adi 10.85p. - Jiva G., Brahmanda Purana, Canto 15 - Sri Krsnajanma khanda)
- eyes (irises) of blue (nIla) color: Sri Sri Radha-kripa-kataksa-stotra 7, Gita-govinda 10.13.2, Gopala-campu 2.34.8, Govinda-lilamrta 11.49,95, Mukta-carita, Krsna-bhavanamrta 5, 11 (sakhis), Nikunja-keli-virudavali
- as "HarA": (Narada-pancaratra 5.5.59) "zrI-harA" listed as one of the names of Srimati Radharani. This is actually a verse from the famous Radha-sahasra-nama-stotra (verse 59):
sri-rupa sri-hara sri-da
Radha-Krsna Deities worship - origin:
CC Madhya 9.289 p.: "Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura remarks that up to the advent of His Holiness Sripada Laksmipati Tirtha, it was the system in the disciplic succession of Madhvacarya to worship Lord Krsna alone. After Srila Madhavendra Puri, worship of both Radha and Krsna was established. For this reason Sri Madhavendra Puri is accepted as the root of worship in ecstatic love."
Astaratha Das: Started by Caitanya Mahaprabhu; philosophical basis is Gosvami-grantha, before that Radha was worshiped only as yantra; to prove genuineness of it was the reason of writing Govinda-bhasya (Baladeva Vidyabhusana).
Goloka - references:
Goloka is the supreme spiritual abode, where Sri Krsna lives with Sri Radha and Their innumerable devotees. It is elaborately described in Srimad Bhagavatam 10, Brahma-samhita, Narada Pancaratra (tat sarvopari goloke; goloko nitya-vaikuntho yathakaso yatha disah - "The eternal spiritual world of Goloka is situated in the spiritual sky." Lord Sadasiva speaks), Gopala-tapani Upanisad, Brahmavaivarta Purana 4.1.14, 4.9.14,15, 4.67.60, Skanda Purana, Sri Vaisnava khanda, Sri Vasudeva Mahatmya 14.10, Padma Purana, Bhagavata Mahatmya 5.72-77, Garga-samhita 1.23, 2.14, etc., Mahabharata/Narayaniya 12.330.68 quoted in Krsna sandarbha 106.104, Harivamsa (Visnu Parva 19 - gavam eva tu goloko) or Rig Veda samhita 1.154.6 (devanagari, transcription, and translation):
ta vam vastuny usmasi gamadhyai
yatra gavo bhuri-srnga ayasah
atraha tad urugayasya krsnah
paramam padam avabhati bhuri
"We wish to go to Your [Radha's and Krsna's] beautiful houses, about which cows with large, excellent horns are wandering. Yet distinctly shining on this earth is that supreme abode of Yours that showers joy on all, O Urugaya [Krsna, who is much praised]."
Goloka vs. Gokula:
tathA te nitya-lIlAyAM
santi vRndAvane bhuvi
Lord Krsna’s eternal pastimes in the spiritual world of Vrndavana are exactly like His manifested pastimes in earthly Vrndavana, as described in the Puranas.
go-caraNaM vayasyaz ca
In the spiritual world of Vrndavana there is the same coming and going to the forest and village of Vraja, the same herding of the cows, and the same friends. Only the killing of the demons is absent. (Sanatkumara samhita 181-182)
Madhavananda Dasa GGS, Gopal Jiu Publications, www.gopaljiu.org
Although Radharani's name does not appear directly in the Bhagavatam Sukadeva Gosvami has given it in many places in an indirect way. I have heard from my Guru Maharaja that Sukadeva Gosvami did not mention Radharani's name directly because he was the parrot of Radha and if he had mentioned Her name directly he would have gone into ecstatic trance for six months. As Maharaja Pariksit had only seven days to hear Srimad Bhagavatam he gave Radha's name in an indirect, hidden way. He cited the writings of Srila Sanatana Gosvami and Jiva Gosvami who have described the Bhagavatam phrase "sri suka uvaca" to mean "suka" - the parrot, of "Sri" - Radha.
As this is a very big topic I will present only a few items here. Perhaps some other Vaishnavas may want to append to this.
Srila Prabhupada has addressed the subject of Radha's name in the Bhagavatam in several places. In CC Madhya 8.100 Ramananda Raya cites SB 10.30.28:
bhagavAn harir IzvaraH
yan no vihAya govindaH
prIto yam anayAd rahaH
"[When the gopis began to talk among themselves, they said:] 'Dear friends, the gopi who has been taken away by Krsna to a secluded place must have worshiped the Lord more than anyone else.'"
In his purport Srila Prabhupada writes:
"The name Radha is derived from this verse (SB 10.30.28), from the words anayaradhitah, meaning "by Her the Lord is worshiped." Sometimes the critics of Srimad-Bhagavatam find it difficult to find Radharani's holy name in that book, but the secret is disclosed here in the word aradhita, from which the name Radha has come. Of course, the name of Radharani is directly mentioned in other Puranas. This gopi's worship of Krsna is topmost, and therefore Her name is Radha, or 'the topmost worshiper.'"
Although Radharani's name is only given in an indirect way in the Bhagavatam, rasika Vaishnavas see Her presence in each and every verse. Sanatana Gosvami, Jiva Gosvami and Vishvanatha Chakravarti have given many purports showing how Sukadeva Gosvami has given Radharani's name in an indirect way. In his commentary on the first verse of the Bhagavatam Jiva gives a long explanation of how the verse is referring to Radha. A few other examples of Sukadeva's indirect references to Radha follow:
In SB 10.32.4 Sukadeva has said, "kacit karambujam saurer jagrhe 'njalina - one of them seized Krsna's hand in her folded palms." Kacit refers to "*one* of them." That one is Radharani.
SB 10.30.38 describes:
evam uktah priyam Aha
skandha Aruhyatam iti
tatas cAntardadhe kRSNaH
sa vadhUr anvatapyata
"After being addressed by a particular gopi, Krsna told Her, "Climb up on My shoulder." Saying this He suddenly disappeared. Sa vadhur anvatapyata - His beloved consort (Radharani) then immediately felt great remorse."
SB 10.30.26 describes how after Krsna left the rasa dance with one special gopi the other gopis went searching for "vadhvah"- that special gopi (Radharani).
In the Bhramara-gita (SB 10.47.11) Sri Sukadeva describes:
kacin madhukaram dRStvA
"*One* of the gopis, while meditating on Her previous association with Krsna, saw a honeybee before Her and imagined it to be a messenger sent by Her beloved. Thus She spoke as follows."
The word "kacin" in this verse, meaning "one of the gopis" refers to Radha.
Aside from the Bhagavatam, Radharani is described elaborately in Brahma-vaivarta, Padma, and Narada Puranas as well as Garga Samhita. In the 4th chapter of Ujjvala-nilamani, "Sri Radha-prakaranam" texts 3 and 4, Rupapada cites the Gopala-tapani Upanisad (of Atharva Veda), Uttara-khanda, where Radha is called Gandharvi and the Rg Veda-parisista where Her name Radha is mentioned. There She is described as the consort of Madhava.
A note of interest: Although this verse was quoted by Rupa, the original texts for this part of the Gopal-tapani Upanisad were unknown to scholars for many, many years. In 1966 one Vaishnava scholar here in Orissa named Fakir Mohan Das discovered original palm leaf copies of this rare literature in the Balasore district of northern Orissa. After finding it he quickly reprinted it to preserve it.
The following is an excerpt from an article written by Dr Fakir Mohan entitled "The History of Sri Sri Radha Krsna Worship in Orissan Culture":
"In Ujjvala Nilamani Srila Rupa Goswami cites the Gopala Tapani Upanisad and the Rg Parisista to show the authenticity of the worship of Srimati Radharani: gopalottaratapinyam yad gandharveti visrutah radhet rk parisiste ca, etc.
'From the Vedic literature we come to know that Sri Radharani is referred to as 'Gandharvi' in the second part of the Gopal Tapani, and as 'Radha' in the Rg Parishistha.'
"Srila Vishvanath Cakravarti Thakur and Baladev Vidyabhushan have stated in their commentaries on Gopala Tapani Upanisad that this tapani of the Atharva Veda, Paippalada branch, was previously being recited by the brahmanas of Gujarat and Orissa. Although presently there are no brahmanas of the Atharva Veda Paippalada branch found in Gujarat, thousands of this lineage are still living in the vicinity of the village Remuna, the birth place of Srila Baladev Vidyabhushan, and in other places of Orissa. In the absence of any help from ancient manuscripts, the original text of the Paippalada Samhita can be reconstructed even today from the tradition, which the village reciters still carry with them unimpaired. In this area some rare Paippalada Samhita manuscripts have been found along with a number of hitherto unknown manuals of special Paippalada rites which give an insight into the social, religious and cultural traditions of Paippaladiyans found in the tapani literature.
"In the 18th century, Srila Baladeva Vidyabhushan has quoted the Purusa-bodhini Sruti, Purusottama Tapini, in his Prameya Ratnavali in connection with the worship of Sri Sri Radha Krsna in the Vedic period. Vaishnava poets like Anandi of Nilachala Dhama and Narahari Cakravarti of Sri Khanda, Bengal, have quoted from the Purusa-bodhini Sruti to establish the authentic nature of the worship of Sri Sri Radha Krsna and Gauranga Mahaprabhu.
"Later in the 18th century, Srila Radha Krsna Goswami, the disciple of Haridas Pandit (who was the grand-disciple of Gadadhar Pandit Goswami of Puri), published four prapathakas (chapters) of the Purusa-bodhini sruti in his Sadhana-dipika. Thakur Bhaktivinode of village Chotimangalpur in Kendrapara District, Orissa, also collected the Sri Caitanya Upanisad of the Paippalada branch from Pandit Madhusudan Das of Sambalpur, Orissa, publishing it in 1887. In 1901 Mahamahopadhyaya Sadashiva Kavyakantha of Puri published some additional chapters of this Sruti. In 1966 we collected all twelve prapathakas of this Purusa-bodhini Sruti from different parts of Orissa and published them from our Sri Bhaktivinode Library in Baripada."
For other references on this subject from Srila Prabhupada's books, one may refer to the second to the last paragraph of Prabhupada's purport to SB 10.3.31. Also CC Madhya 18.8 which cites Padma Purana on the glories of Radha-kunda. And CC Adi 4.83 which addresses the glories of Radharani from the Brhad-gautamiya-tantra.page url: http://www.veda.harekrsna.cz/encyclopedia/tattvas1.htm
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